The Career Ladder Nursing Program is comprised of:
- Practical Nursing (PN) Program
- Associate Degree Nursing (ADN) Program
(Curriculum Code for both programs is 0863)
The PN PROGRAM is approved by the Michigan Board of Nursing (since November 1970). The program consists of 21-25 semester credits of general education requirements and 23 semester credits of nursing course requirements. These courses provide the basis for an in-depth study of the theory and nursing care of adults, children and families. Clinical experiences include extended care facilities, hospitals, and community agencies where students provide nursing care to geriatric, medical, surgical, maternity and pediatric patients.
Graduates earn a certificate from Lansing Community College and are eligible to take the National Council Licensing Examination - Practical Nurse (NCLEX-PN). Those who pass the examination are entitled to practice as Licensed Practical Nurses (LPNs).
The ADN PROGRAM is approved by the Michigan Board of Nursing,
and is accredited by:
Accreditation Commission for Education in Nursing, Inc.
3343 Peachtree Road NE, Suite 850
Atlanta, Georgia 30326
LCC's nursing program has had continuous accreditation since 1971. The program consists of the PN Program described above with an additional 9-11 semester credits of general education requirements and 21 semester credits of nursing courses.
Lansing Community College offers several delivery options in a Career Ladder Program in Nursing. Graduates who successfully complete the first year of the program earn a certificate and are eligible to take the National Council Licensing Examination-Practical Nurse (NCLEX-PN). Those who pass the examination are entitled to practice as Licensed Practical Nurses (LPNs). Graduates who successfully complete the second year of the program earn an Associate Degree in Applied Sciences and are eligible to take the National Council Licensing Examination-Registered Nurse (NCLEX-RN). Those who pass the examination are entitled to practice as Registered Nurses (RNs).
All admission procedures for the Career Ladder Nursing Program are coordinated through the Admissions Office, which has responsibility for distributing, receiving, and dating application forms. Therefore, any student desiring admission into this program may complete the Selective Admissions application and submit it as per the instructions on the application. After the application has been completed and submitted, the student may contact a Selective Admissions specialist at (517) 483-1200 or email@example.com or a college advisor (517) 483-1904 for further information.
This is a selective admission program. Students meeting Admission Requirements will be ranked for admittance into the program using a point value system as outlined in the seminar packet. Points will be awarded to students who meet the Admission Requirements only at the time students are being considered for admission.
The student applicant is responsible for providing verification of any other information not contained in the current Lansing Community College official transcript. Prerequisites and other admission requirements must be completed and verified by the Admissions Office by the deadline stated in the advising guide before a student is considered eligible to compete for a seat in the nursing program.
Lansing Community College is committed to excellence in education and is an Equal Opportunity college. Discrimination on the basis of religion, race, color, national origin, age, sex, height, height, marital status, handicap, or sexual orientation is prohibited.
Please refer to the following documents for complete information regarding Lansing Community College's Nursing Program admission.
Students who plan to apply to the nursing program must attend a mandatory Pre-Nursing Advising Seminar. Click Here to see scheduled dates. Students MUST read the Nursing Advising Guide THOROUGHLY BEFORE attending a seminar.
Career Facts for Registered Nursing (RNs)
Nature of Work
Registered nurses (RNs) work to promote health, prevent disease, and help patients cope with illness. They are advocates and health educators for patients, families, and communities. When providing direct patient care, they observe, assess, record and report symptoms, reactions, and progress; perform treatments and examinations; start IVs; administer medications; and assist in convalescence and rehabilitation. RNs also develop and manage patient plans of care; instruct patients and their families in proper care; and help individuals and groups take steps to improve or maintain their health.
Hospital nurses form the largest group of nurses. Most are staff nurses, who provide bedside nursing care and carry out medical regimens. They also may supervise licensed practical nurses and nursing aides. Hospital nurses usually are assigned to one area, such as surgery, maternity, pediatrics, orthopedics, emergency, mental health, intensive care, or treatment of cancer patients. Some may rotate among departments. Office nurses care for outpatients in physicians' offices, clinics, surgical centers, and emergency medical centers. They prepare patients for and assist with examinations, administer injections and medications, dress wounds and incisions, assist with minor surgery, and maintain records. Some also perform routine laboratory and office work.
Nursing home nurses manage nursing care for residents with conditions ranging from a fracture to Alzheimer's disease. Although they often spend much of their time on administrative and supervisory tasks, RNs also assess residents' health condition, develop treatment plans, supervise licensed practical nurses and nursing aides, and perform procedures such as starting intravenous fluids.
Home health nurses provide periodic services to patients at home. After assessing patients' home environments, they care for and instruct patients and their families. Home health nurses care for a broad range of patients, such as those recovering from illnesses and accidents, cancer, and childbirth. They must be able to work independently, and may supervise home health aides. Other nurses work in public health, occupational health, industrial settings, research and academia.
Skills You Need
One must possess scientific knowledge, interpersonal skills, and a high energy level to succeed in nursing. The ability to communicate and interact effectively with people is essential. Nursing also requires manual dexterity to deal with the technical demands in the profession. Managerial and critical thinking skills are vital for effective organization and clinical reasoning.
Registered nursing is one of the 10 occupations projected to have the largest numbers of new jobs. Job opportunities are expected to be very good. Thousands of job openings also will result from the need to replace experienced nurses who leave the occupation, especially as the median age of the registered nurse population continues to rise.
Median annual wages of registered nurses were $62,450 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $51,640 and $76,570. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $43,410, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $92,240. Median annual wages in the industries employing the largest numbers of registered nurses in May 2008 were:
|General medical and surgical hospitals||63,880|
|Offices of physicians||59,210|
|Home health care services||58,740|
|Nursing care facilities||57,060|
Many employers offer flexible work schedules, child care, educational benefits, and bonuses. About 21 percent of registered nurses are union members or covered by union contract.
Career Facts for Licensed Practical Nursing
Nature of Work
Licensed practical nurses (LPNs), care for the sick, injured, convalescing, and handicapped, under the direction of registered nurses or physicians. (The work of registered nurses is described below.)
Most LPNs provide basic bedside care. They take vital signs such as temperature, blood pressure, pulse, and respiration. They also prepare and give injections, apply dressings, and insert catheters. LPNs observe patients and report adverse reactions to medications or treatments. They may collect samples from patients for testing and perform routine laboratory tests. They help patients with bathing, dressing, and personal hygiene, feed them and record food and liquid intake and output, provide comfort measures, and care for their emotional needs. In states where the law allows, they may administer prescribed medicines or start intravenous fluids. Some LPNs help deliver, care for, and feed infants. Some experienced LPNs supervise nursing assistants and aides.
LPNs in nursing homes, in addition to providing routine bedside care, may also help evaluate residents' needs, develop care plans, and supervise nursing aides. In doctors' offices and clinics, including health maintenance organizations, they may also make appointments, keep records, and perform other clerical duties. LPNs who work in home health may also prepare meals and teach family members simple nursing tasks.
Job prospects for LPNs are expected to remain very good, as employment in health care grows much faster than it has in the past. Because of this growth, the number of new graduates needed will be well above the number graduated in recent years. Nursing homes will offer the most new jobs for LPNs.
Skills You Need
LPNs should have a caring, sympathetic nature. They should be emotionally stable because work with the sick and injured can be stressful. As part of a health care team, they must be able to follow orders and work under close supervision. One must possess scientific knowledge, interpersonal skills, and a high energy level to succeed in nursing. The ability to communicate and interact effectively with people is essential. Nursing also requires manual dexterity to deal with the technical demands in the profession. Managerial and critical thinking skills are vital for effective organization, problem solving, and coordination.
Median annual wages of licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses were $41,540 in May 2012. The middle 50 percent earned between $34,990 and $48,380. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $30,970, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $57,360. Median annual wages in the industries employing the largest numbers of licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses in May 2012 were:
|Home health care services||$43,920|
|Nursing care facilities||43,570|
Continuing care retirement communities and
assisted living facilities for the elderly
|General medical and surgical hospitals||41,330|
|Offices of physicians||38,980|
The courses provide the basis for an in-depth study of the theory and nursing care of children, adults, and families. Clinical experiences include hospitals, home health care agencies, rehabilitation units, and community health organizations where students provide nursing care to mental health, medical, surgical, maternity, and pediatric patients. Students are responsible for applying beginning leadership skills in supervising members of the health team. Student learning experiences progress from simple to complex and use critical thinking skills in applying the nursing process to the care of patients. Graduates earn an Associate Degree in Applied Sciences from Lansing Community College and are eligible to take the National Council Licensing Examination - Registered Nurse (NCLEX-RN). Those who pass the examination are entitled to practice as Registered Nurses (RNs).
PROGRAM DELIVERY OPTIONS (Tracks)
The Career Ladder Nursing Program offers traditional and non-traditional tracks to achieve the Practical Nurse (PN) Certificate of Achievement (Curriculum Code 0235) and/or the Registered Nurse (ADN) Associate in Applied Science Degree (Curriculum Code 0222).
- 2-year/four-semester track with classes and clinical sessions meeting mornings and/or afternoons during the fall and spring semesters. This track is designed so that the student has class 4-5 days/week and completes the program in two years.
- 3-year/eight-semester track with classes and clinical sessions meeting mornings and/or afternoons. All semesters are 16 weeks, except the summer semesters which are 10 weeks in length. This track is designed so that the student has class 2-3 days/week and completes the program in three years. *International students with F-1 Visas are not eligible for this track. (Historically, of the four nursing tracks, the 3-Year/8-semester track has been the last choice by students. Given the current economic challenges and the trend of choosing the 3-Year/8-semester curriculum last over the other tracks, the admission cycle for the 3-Year/8-semester curriculum may change in the future. Students will be notified, prior to the selective admission deadline, of any changes.)
- Advanced standing to RN track is designed for practical nurses, respiratory therapists, and paramedics (including those who were certified as EMT-Paramedics prior to 2002) who hold unrestricted current Michigan licensure and have work experience. Classes and clinical sessions meet mornings and/or afternoons for three semesters beginning with a 10-week summer session, then continue through fall and spring semesters.
- 2nd degree accelerated track is designed for individuals who possess a Bachelor's, or higher degree, in any major. Classes and clinical sessions meet mornings and/or Afternoons and/or weekends. This track begins in mid-September, continues through spring, summer and fall, with completion in December of the next year.
Classes in all tracks meet face-to-face and some are on-line sessions. The non-traditional options consist of more hybrid classes which are a combination of face-to-face and on-line.
Accepted Student Information
Fall 2014 - Spring 2015 Admission Information
It is important to check this website periodically for updates.
2-YEAR & 3-YEAR TRACK INFORMATION:
2014-2015 Contract - Due no later than 4:00 pm on 7/18
SPRING SEMESTER 2015: 2-Year. Orientation tentatively scheduled for Friday, 1/9/15.
Registration Information - Registration Deadline is 1/2/15.
Health Forms, Background Check Forms, etc. are due to HHS 108 no later than 12/1/14.
ACEMAPP requirements (pay $50 fee & complete all three assessments) are due no later than 12/15/14. (ACEMAPP information will be emailed to your LCC email after 11/16/14.)
Tuition is payable at the time of registration for each semester, and is subject to change by action of the Board of Trustees. Tuition Rates beginning Fall 2014.
Student Nurses Association (SNA)
SNA was established in the Fall of 1983 for the purpose of uniting nursing students and providing a cohesive source of support during their studies at LCC.
SNA members work together with fellow students to become active in the community and on campus, in promoting health and wellness. Students enrolled in the nursing program can become members.
New members always welcome. SNA usually meets every other Tuesday at 11AM. Information about activities and upcoming events can be found on Angel Site- Nursing Careers-Announcements. Cost is $6 per year. Applications can also be found at the Angel-Nursing Careers-SNA site. Turn in completed applications into the nursing office (HHS 108).
Nursing Faculty: SNA Advisor
Job Resource Center allows students access to the scholarship application and employment information from academic health centers, including details about new grad training programs, internships, and externships.
Elsevier Student Life - NCLEX Resources
Ferris State University
Frequently Asked Questions - Career Ladder Nursing Program
Individual Career Opportunities in Nursing (iCON)
Michigan Licensed Practical Nurse Association
Michigan Nurses Association
Michigan State University - College of Nursing
National League for Nursing (NLN)
National League For Nursing Accrediting Commission
Public Health Code
Saginaw Valley State University - College of Nursing
University of Detroit Mercy - McAuley School of Nursing
Information regarding available scholarships for nursing
Special Notice for Healthcare Students completing their degree by Spring 2015...Capital Area Michigan Works!
For a limited time, there are scholarships once again available for students who will be finishing up their degree by June 2015 in IT or Healthcare programs through Capital Area Michigan Works! Please contact Shon'ta Dwyer to see if they qualify for one of the available scholarships. Shon'ta can be reached at : (517) 708-4010 or firstname.lastname@example.org.
A Nurse I Am Scholarship
A Nurse I Am Scholarship is available via their website at www.ANurseIAm.com, where instructions for applying can be found.
AAMN Foundation Scholarships for Men
American Assembly for Men in Nursing (AAMN) Foundation and Johnson & Johnson's Campaign for Nursing's Future have partnered to offer a $1,000 scholarship program for male students pursuing professional nursing education programs. These scholarships are intended to support male students who are seeking a pre-RN licensure or graduate degree in nursing. Go to http://aamn.org/scholarships.shtml for further information and application materials.
AMVETS Department of MI
24715 John R
Hazel Park, MI 48030
Army Nurse Corps - The Spirit of Nursing Award
Sponsored by U.S. Army Nurse Corp (ANC) and the National Student Nurses' Association. (click here for application)
Free Nursing Scholarships and Financial Aid Resources Information
KMMNBNA - National Black Nurses Association -
Contact: Shahidah El-Amin, BS, RN
Scholarship Committee Chairperson
P.O. Box 6001
Grand Rapids, MI 4961-6001
Occupational Program Awards - Deadline for 2015 Scholarship Applications is Saturday - February 14, 2015.
The awards are offered for a maximum of three semesters over a period of two consecutive years (Fall, Spring and one Summer Semester.) Renewal each semester is contingent upon the recipient meeting all award requirements. The Awards will cover up to $1,096 in tuition and fees each fall and spring semester and up to $382 for an optional summer semester. These amounts will cover approximately 12 billing hours plus partial fees in Fall and Spring Semesters and 4 billing hours plus partial fees in Summer Semester. An award recipient must:
- Be a citizen or permanent resident of the U.S.
- Reside in the LCC district.
- Be a high school graduate.
- Pursue an approved LCC Health or Human Services Degree (occupational curriculum).
- Have a cumulative high school grade point average of at least 3.0.
Click here for application form: http://www.lcc.edu/scholarships/application/
For more information, please contact:
The Foundation Office at (517) 483-1985.
Please visit the following website for additional LCC Scholarship information: lcc.edu/scholarships/application/.
Memorial Healthcare Foundation Peggy Gulick Nursing Scholarship
Contact: Matt Hufnagel, Executive Director, Foundation Office
826 W. King
Owosso, MI 48867
Application form and eligibility criteria available under Foundation heading at:
Michigan League for Nursing (MLN) & Michigan Council for Nursing Education Administrators
National Association of Hispanic Nurses-Six $500 scholarships
North Ottawa Hospital Auxiliary Scholarships - (Limited to residents of Ottawa County)
Contact: Kristyn Ireland
Scholarship form available at: www.ghacf.org
Sladek Nursing Scholarships and Critical Medical Career Scholarships
Contact: Ruth Bloomer, Manager Munson Foundation (231)
Maggie Curtin, Dept Assistant (231) 935-6482
Application available by contacting email@example.com.
1. What makes Lansing Community College's Nursing Program distinctive?
- High regard in the community.
- A ladder program concept.
- Four program options.
- Nationally accredited.
2. Are there advising sessions available?
There are MANDATORY pre-nursing advising sessions scheduled throughout the year for students who are interested in applying to the nursing program. Current session dates can be found at: lcc.edu/advising/seminars/. Prior to attending a seminar students are required to thoroughly read the current Nursing Advising Guide which can be found at: lcc.edu/nursing/nursing/
3. When does the program start? When do I apply? How many students are admitted? How long does the program last?
The program offers four tracks: traditional 2-yr; non-traditional 3-yr, advance standing to RN, and 2nd degree options. Regardless of the track the student chooses, the discipline of nursing requires a full time commitment of study.
# of Students Admitted
Fall - August
Classes, labs and clinical sessions for all options vary between days, evenings, and weekends.
Spring - January
Fall - August
8 consecutive semesters
Advanced Standing Track
Summer - June
3 consecutive semesters
2nd Degree Track
Fall - September
*Attempts are made to offer courses in the afternoon, evening and weekends.
4. What prerequisites do I have to take? When do they have to be completed?
For complete information regarding prerequisites and completion timelines click here.
5. What if I want a four year degree?
If you plan to articulate to a four year institution, it is suggested to review the requirements of the BSN completion curriculum of the institution you are considering.
6. What if I already have a B.S. or a B.A. degree?
Please see the 2nd Degree Track information below.
7. What is the difference between the 2nd Degree Track and the Advanced Standing to RN Track Program?
The 2nd Degree Track requires that the applicant have a Bachelor's degree. The degree can be in any area. All prerequisites, including general education and NURS 200, must be completed before starting the 2nd Degree Track. The nursing courses vary from 6 to 8 weeks in length. The track is 14 consecutive months. Some of the coursework is online, with lab on campus and clinical hours in the Lansing and surrounding areas.
The Advanced Standing to RN Track requires that the applicant be a licensed paramedic, LPN or Respiratory Therapist. All prerequisites must be completed before starting the program. After the Transition Class summer semester, the student enters the equivalent of the second year of the nursing program. This is hybrid, with at least 50% of the learning online. This track is 3 consecutive semesters.
8. How do I know if courses will transfer as prerequisites?
Official transcripts must be mailed directly from prior school(s) to the address below. Following transcript evaluation confirmation of transferable credits will be sent to the student.
1121A - Registrar's Office
Lansing Community College
PO Box 40010
Lansing, MI 48901-7210
(800) 644-4522 x1200
9. How do I apply if I am not a Lansing Community College student?
If you have never been a Lansing Community College student, you need to fill out a college application.
- To fill out the application online, click here.
- To pick up at application, student can go to Enrollment
Gannon Building-Suite 203.
- To have an application mailed, call: (517) 483-1200 or (800) 644-4522 x1200
10. I am currently a Lansing Community College student -- how do I apply?
- Students will receive a packet of information at the MANDATORY pre-nursing seminar.
- Application for the Nursing Program is found in the seminar packet.
11. What does the Admission Committee look for in an applicant?
Admission to all tracks of the Nursing Program are based on a point system. The point system is found in the seminar packet. All tracks require all prerequisite requirements to be completed. In all tracks, the students with the greatest number of points are admitted.
12. Who should I call for advising?
Students who need additional advising should contact Counseling and Advising, Room 204 of the Gannon Building, or call (517) 483-1904 for additional information.
13. How much does the program cost?
Current tuition rates are $83.00 per billing hour for residents and $166.00 per billing hour for nonresidents. The out-of-state student tuition rate is $249.00 per billing hour and international student tuition rate is $291.00 per billing hour. There is a registration fee each semester of $25.00. Additional fees are listed on the specific program advising guide.
14. How do I apply for financial aid?
You may find more information related to financial aid by visiting
Lansing Community College's Student Financial
1600 - Financial Aid/Veteran Services
Lansing Community College
P.O. Box 40010
Lansing, MI 48901-7210(517) 483-1296
Fax Number: (517) 483-1170
Long Distance at (800) 644-4LCC
Contact person: Judy Harris
Also, some nursing scholarships are available through the LCC Foundation Office.
Lansing Community College
PO Box 40010
Lansing, MI 4890-7210
Phone: (517) 483-1985
Fax: (517) 267-5554
Room 101, Rogers Carrier House
The Nursing Program frequently receives scholarship information. Please click here to find out more.
15. Is housing available?
The Student Life Office often posts offerings but Lansing Community
College has no formal housing assistance available. To access the
Student Life home page, please click
Director: Al Nowak
Student Life Office Location: Gannon Building-Suite 218
Mail Code: 1170
Phone: (517) 483-1285
16. Is there a waiting list to get into your program?
No. We use a "selective admission" process based on a point system.
Students for the 2-year and 3-year tracks, who have completed admission requirements may apply to be in the applicant pool for the March 1 deadline; however seats are based on the highest point scores.
Students applying to the Advanced Standing to RN track must have all prerequisites completed by March 1st and those with the most points are awarded the seats.
The 2nd Degree track students must have all prerequisites completed by June 1st and those with the most points are awarded the available seats.
Approximately 10 students will be placed on an "alternate list" in the 2-year and 3-year tracks. The remaining students that qualified, but did not have enough points to get a seat, will be sent a letter stating they did not make the cut off and may work to earn more points and apply for admission the next year if they so choose.
17. How are the GPA points calculated?
The GPA is not your overall college GPA. It is calculated solely on the courses required for the Nursing Program. To calculate your GPA, use the worksheet provided in the Nursing Advising Guide.
18. If I am accepted, what next?
Once you are accepted, you will receive a letter inviting you to a mandatory orientation meeting. Following that orientation session, you will sign a letter of intent to either accept or decline your seat in the program.
19. Can I have a job while I am a nursing student?
Many of our students work part-time. We definitely do not recommend more than 20 hours a week. If you must work, you will need a strong support system. The expectation of the Accelerated Program is to limit all outside work.
20. What is the typical student profile of a nursing student at Lansing Community College?
The average age of a Lansing Community College nursing student is currently 28.8 years. Students range from 19 to 54 years of age. Most students are married or divorced and have children at various stages of development. More than 50% work part-time in other jobs.
21. Why should I choose an AD Nursing Program at Lansing Community College versus going directly into a BSN program?
- Cost - community colleges are less expensive.
- Learning Style - The technical nurse program is more hands-on along with theory, so you can apply what you are learning as you go.
- More Options - You have the option of exiting after one year to become an LPN or two years to become an RN -- if you can't manage two years at one time, you can exit and return within two years into the 2nd year of the program.
22. If I want to go on for a BSN at a later date, how feasible is this?
Lansing Community College's Nursing Program articulates with eight or more universities in Michigan. You can complete your BSN by completing approximately two more years at one of these institutions. A link to some of these universities is available on the Useful Links web page.
23. What might be the reasons for not choosing Lansing Community College's Nursing Program?
For the younger student, who does not have outside family responsibilities, the after class socialization is not the same as at the four year universities. College is often a "right of passage" for the late adolescent and that socialization is not a major focus of the older student in our program.
Information For Returning LPN's(Advanced Standing Track)
1. If I want to enter Lansing Community Colleges Nursing Program, do I have to start from the beginning?
You will have to meet the LPN program prerequisite course requirements. Often these will transfer from your previous college. Click here to find more information on our Advanced Standing to RN Track web page.
It is our goal to articulate the LPN into the 2nd year (3rd semester) of our program when he/she returns for his/her RN degree. All returning students are required to take NURS 210 - LPN to RN Transition 2 Course.
2. How do I enroll as an LPN articulation student?
Students who need additional advising should contact Counseling and Advising, in the Gannon Building-Suite 204, or call (517) 483-1904 for additional information. Your prior course work will be evaluated and a plan of study will be developed for you.
Enhanced Foot Assessment
This information was developed by Margherita P. Clark RN and Wendy A. Ehnis RN. We welcome inquiries or suggestions. Please feel free to contact us at either firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com.
A key component in maintaining physical independence is the promotion of regular foot care and the prevention of potentially debilitating foot injury or loss of function. Early detection and management effect a difference between limb-threatening complications and a return to full potential. Healthy feet are a prerequisite for balance and stable ambulation. Immobility can be considered a strong risk factor in predicting systemic diminution of physical and psychological health.
Role of the APN
Foot care is an integral part of optimal health maintenance; and historically a missed opportunity. Many nurses possess limited assessment skills and minimal clinical expertise in dealing with lower extremity care. Many are unaware that foot care is within the scope of nursing practice. Indeed, the ability to differentiate normal changes from pathological threat and detection of problems followed by initiation of appropriate care and ongoing patient education is integral with nursing and the promotion of health.
The value of the advanced practice nurse (APN) in providing expert knowledge, coupled with strong decision making skills, enables the APN to function in a number of roles. As a facilitator, the APN may coordinate teaching-learning opportunities that enhance reciprocal learning. The role of the advanced practice nurse in primary care is multidimensional. The American Nurses' Association's (ANA) former Council of Nurses in Advanced Practice defines the APN as (cited in Hickey, Ouimette, & Venegoni):
Nurses in advanced clinical practice have a graduate degree in nursing. They conduct comprehensive health assessments, demonstrate a high level of autonomy and expert skill in the diagnosis and treatment of complex responses of individuals, families, and communities to actual or potential health problems. They formulate clinical decision to manage acute and chronic illness and promote wellness. Nurses in advanced practice integrate education, research, management, leadership, and consultation into their clinical role and function in collegial relationships with nursing peers, physicians and others who influence the health environment (p.22). This definition clearly illustrates the multidimensional nature of the APN.
Clearly, the value of a standardized protocol for lower extremity assessment and care by nurses should not be minimized. In a study of 6 nurse practitioners, Fain & Melkus (1994) found documentation of foot exams in 23% of charts reviewed. Despite lack of written adherence, in a 1989 NIH survey, over 80% of primary care providers indicated performance of foot, neurological and circulatory exam in diabetic patients one or more times per year. Results of a 1990 study by Hempel suggest that use of a flow sheet and nurse-managed patient education clinic significantly enhances compliance and documentation to standards in a diabetic population.
Pelican et al. ( 1991 ) reports in the Journal of Gerontological Nursing, the inception of a nurse run well foot care clinic, with the development of an assessment tool, instructional videotape and informational brochure. Kelechi and Lukacs (1996), both Master's prepared nurses, recognizing foot care as an "integral part of the promotion and maintenance of health" (p. 722) have devised "comprehensive lower extremity assessment, hygiene and nursing interventions that address problems associated with toenails and skin. It also includes patient and/or caregiver education and the identification of complications that need to be referred to a physician or specialist." It is the purpose of this project to develop for practitioners an assessment and documentation protocol, along with a self-directed teaching-learning module to deliver foot care in a geriatric non-traditional setting.
- Normal Foot Structure
- Skin Integrity
- Bony Deformities
- Dystrophic Nails
- Effects of Diabetes
Career Ladder Nursing Programs
Health and Human Services Bldg, Room 108
Phone: (517) 483-1410
Additional contact information »