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Wholesale and Retail Trade Industry

Eating and Drinking Establishments -This industry is comprised of 479,000 places of employment. This represents about 7.8 million jobs. Restaurants make up the majority of establishments. The most common are franchised. The fast food industry numbers 1 out of 3 places today, while in 1970 only represented 20% of eating establishments. Many eating establishments however are independently owned and there is an estimate of 267,000 self-employed people in this industry.

Eating and Drinking


Industry description

This industry largely consists of fast food and full service restaurants. Cafeterias are also available to the general public.

Needs and initiatives

There is a growing need for drive-in and delivery services. Full-service restaurants are increasing their menus to include more appetizers, entree's, side dishes and desserts. More contracting is also being done out of institutional food services to schools, hospitals and company cafeterias.

Interests

To work in this area 25% of employees are 16 - 19 and are amenable to evening, weekend and holidays, with much work being done in rotating shifts. Direct contact with the public, requires pleasant and professional manners, even if things get hectic and stressful.

Greatest segment needs

The greatest needs are for waiters and waitresses, hosts, counter attendants, food preparation workers and dishwashers.

Eating and Drinking Establishment's Occupational Outlook


Training

To advance in this industry it is becoming increasingly important to have post secondary training in restaurant and food service management. Management programs last from 18 months to 4 years, when a bachelor's degree is awarded. Training for chefs has changed radically, requiring more business courses in leadership, computer skills and management. There are many entry level positions and on-the-job training is becoming increasingly done by formal video or computer training sessions. Computers are also tracking sales and inventories.

Earnings

Earnings are much lower then average for all industries. Most jobs are minimum wage, supplemented by tips from customers. Waiters and waitresses, fast food cooks, food preparers and bartenders make approximately $6.00 - $7.00 per hour. Head cooks make closer to $7.50 and managers close to $12.00 per hour.

Employment Outlook

Outlook is excellent for skilled cooks and chefs, with slow growth for unskilled jobs. More and more formal culinary training and baking is required. The number of bartender jobs is expected to decline, as people shift from mixed drinks The number of salaried managers jobs is expected to grow as a result of growth in chain and franchised establishments. One area of particular growth in jobs concerns work in nursing homes, or assisted living care.

Wholesale Trade - This industry accounts for 6.8 million jobs in 1998, which is about 5% of all jobs in the economy. Most of the establishments are small with under 10 workers. Merchant wholesalers employ most of the workers in this industry.

Wholesale Trades


Industry description

Wholesale trade firms buy large quantities of goods from manufacturers and sell them in smaller quantifies to business, government and other wholesalers or institutions. They are intermediaries who bring goods from the manufacturer to the final customer. This makes the number of customers for manufacturers manageable. There are three types of wholesale firms. Merchant wholesalers are the most common and comprise 90% of firms in this industry. Sales branch managers market company products and coordinate distribution. Wholesale brokers coordinate the sale of goods from one party to another. Wholesalers may sell a narrow scope of goods or a broad variety of goods.

Needs and initiatives

A trend is increasing of distributors providing credit and financing, marketing and advertising and technical and service installation and repair services. More and more there are automated or computer-controlled storage which reduces labor.

Interests

The physical demand of this job can be great. Moving stock can be strenuous when forklifts and automated movement is not used. Sales jobs require extensive travel and work outside of the office, while office administration is conducted in-house. Most workers put in long shifts and tend to work full-time.

Greatest segment needs

Most of the work centers on stocking, storing, selling and transporting goods. There are many administrative jobs, shipping and receiving, sales and marketing, laborers, order fillers, stock clerks, freight and material handlers, industrial truck operators, drivers, counter sales workers, inside sales workers and outside sales workers. The outside sales requires much skill in maintaining customers, securing new ones and demonstrating projects. The most skill is required for sales managers and executives who monitor and coordinate work of the sales staffs.

Wholesale Trades and Occupational Outlook


Training

For most jobs you do not need a college degree. Many new workers receive training by third party training organizations, who apprise them of the newest selling techniques, on-line purchasing systems, electronic data, management methodologies and information systems. Advancement in this industry is usually good, as you are usually advanced from within the company. You may move from counter sales, to installation and service, to outside sales to management. The trend though is that it is becoming more difficult to be promoted without education. Many companies are training their personnel with university programs. New workers need financial, logistical, technical and advertising knowledge.

Earnings

Earnings vary greatly. The highest earnings are in the professional and commercial equipment line, and the lowest wages come from farm and agricultural materials. Part of earnings can be based upon performance, if you work outside sales and work on commission. Truck drivers earn about $8.00-$10.00 per hour. Order fillers and sales make about $9.00 - $10.00, while sales district representatives earn $16.00 - $19.00 per hour. Supervisors typically earn the most and start at about $18.00 - $30.00 for top executives.

Employment Outlook

The jobs in this industry will grow more slowly then average for the next decade. There is much consolidation of this industry to reduce costs as the use of technology spreads. Advanced computer systems will reduce the needs for administrative jobs in record-keeping and processing orders. Many customers are ordering goods electronically through the Internet and bills are being paid electronically with electronic funds transfers.

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